Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Co. operates as a publishing house. It is a provider of pre-K-12 education solutions and specializes in dynamic learning content for students, teachers, kids and parents. The firm publishes a comprehensive set of best-in-class educational solutions, ranging from research-based textbook programs to instructional technology to standards-based assessments for students and educators. The company also publishes renowned and awarded novels, nonfiction, children's books and reference works for readers throughout the world. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing was founded in 1832 by William Ticknor and James Fields and is headquartered in Boston, MA.